Public websites or Internet domains are managed through a technology referred to as Domain Name System (DNS). Your computer can find a resource on the Internet through your web browser, by contacting the DNS server. The collection of DNS server all over the world forms part of the Domain Name System (DNS).
DNS servers are designed to run special-purpose networking software, with public IP addresses and network names for Internet hosts. Network protocols enable DNS servers to communicate.
The Domain Name System (DNS)
The Domain name System follows a hierarchical organization. Its root servers occupy the top of the hierarchy and store Internet domain names, with their corresponding IP addresses. There are thirteen root servers, which are maintained by independent agencies, and names are A, B, C, up to M. The United States hosts ten of these servers, and the other three are available in London, Japan, and Sweden.
The Domain Name System is organized in the form of a distributed database system. Root servers contain complete names and addresses. However, lower-level servers only certain pieces of information.
Businesses or Internet Service Providers (ISPs) own lower level DNS servers in the hierarchy. Google as a large web-based organization manages google.co.uk, google.com, and related domains. Your ISP also maintains DNS servers during the Internet connection setup.
The Domain Name System (DNS) works through a client-server architecture. The browser acts as a DNS client and is also known as a DNS resolver. The browser initiates the requests for websites and sent to the DNS servers available with the Internet Service Provider (ISP) to navigate from one website to another.
Home Networks and DNS Servers
Computers connected to your home network can locate a DNS server from the Properties dialog box in the Internet connection setup. Public IP addresses of the primary and backup DNS servers, which are supplied by the Internet Service Providers (ISPs) are setup using a home network gateway, also called a DHCP server. A free Internet DNS service is also available to the home network administrator to work with public IP addresses. The current IP address of your DNS server configuration is available through the configuration screen of your home network router, the TCP/IP connection properties from the Windows Control panel, or through the ipconfig utility.